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Reading comprehension -TOEFL- Lesson 154 (Đọc hiểu -TOEFL- Bài 154)

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Until recently, most American entrepreneurs were men. Discrimination against women in business, the demands of caring for families, and lack of business training had kept the number of women entrepreneurs small. Now, however, businesses owned by women account for more than 5 $40 billion in annual revenues, and this figure is likely to continue rising throughout the 1990s. As Carolyn Doppelt Gray, an official of the Small Business Administration, has noted, "The 1970s was the decade of women entering management, and the 1980s turned out to be the decade of the woman entrepreneur". 10 What are some of the factors behind this trend? For one thing, as more women earn advanced degrees in business and enter the corporate world, they are finding obstacles. Women are still excluded from most executive suites. Charlotte Taylor, a management consultant, 15 had noted, "In the 1970s women believed if they got an MBA and worked hard they could become chairman of the board. Now they've found out that isn't going to happen, so they go out on their own".

In the past, most women entrepreneurs worked in "women's" fields: cosmetics 20 and clothing, for example. But this is changing. Consider ASK Computer Systems, a $22-million-a-year computer software business. It was founded in 1973 by Sandra Kurtzig, who was then a housewife with degrees in math and engineering. When Kurtzig founded the business, her first product was software that let weekly newspapers keep tabs 25 on their newspaper carriers-and her office was a bedroom at home, with a shoebox under the bed to hold the company's cash. After she succeeded with the newspaper software system, she hired several bright computer-science graduates to develop additional programs. When these were marketed and sold, ASK began to grow. It now has 200 employees, 30 and Sandra Kurtzig owns $66.9 million of stock.

Of course, many women who start their own businesses fail, just as men often do. They still face hurdles in the business world, especially problems in raising money; the banking and finance world is still 35 dominated by men, and old attitudes die hard. Most businesses owned by women are still quite small. But the situation is changing; there are likely to be many more Sandra Kurtzigs in the years ahead.

1. What is the main idea of this passage?




2. The word "excluded" in line 13 is closest in meaning to




3. All of the following were mentioned in the passage as detriments to women in the business world EXCEPT




4. In line 17, "that" refers to




5. According to the passage, Charlotte Taylor believes that women in the 1970s




6. The author mentions the "shoebox under the bed" in the third paragraph in order to




7. In line 20, the word "this" refers to




8. The expression "keep tabs on" in line 24-25 is closest in meaning to




9. The word "hurdles" in line 33 can be best replaced by




10. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that businesses operated by women are small because




11. The author's attitude about the future of women in business is





Grammar Easy Grammar Medium Grammar - Difficult
1->25 26->49 50->75 76->99 100->125 126->164
Ôn Tập Ngữ Pháp Phần 1 Ôn Tập Ngữ Pháp Phần 2